Übersetzung im Kontext von „the dough“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: wherein the dough, the dough pieces, the dough product. Übersetzung für 'dough' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Übersetzungen für dough im Englisch» Deutsch-Wörterbuch von PONS Online: dough, bread/pastry/yeast dough, filo dough.
Similar to standard doughnuts, doughnut holes may be topped with confections, such as glaze or powdered sugar. Originally, most varieties of doughnut holes were derivatives of their ring doughnut yeast-based dough or cake batter counterparts.
However, doughnut holes can also be made by dropping a small ball of dough into hot oil from a specially shaped nozzle or cutter.
Filled doughnuts are flattened spheres injected with fruit preserves , cream , custard , or other sweet fillings, and often dipped into powdered sugar or topped off with frosting.
Common varieties include the Boston cream , coconut , key lime , and jelly. Others include the fritter and the Dutchie , which are usually glazed.
There are many other specialized doughnut shapes such as old-fashioned , bars or Long Johns a rectangular shape , or with the dough twisted around itself before cooking.
In the northeast United States, bars and twists are usually referred to as crullers. Another is the beignet , a square-shaped doughnut covered with powdered sugar, commonly associated with New Orleans.
Whilst foodstuffs resembling doughnuts have been found at many ancient sites, [ further explanation needed ] the earliest origins to the modern doughnuts are generally traced back to the olykoek "oil y cake" Dutch settlers brought with them to early New York or New Amsterdam.
These doughnuts closely resembled later ones but did not yet have their current ring-sized shape. The name oly koeks was almost certainly related to the oliekoek: According to anthropologist Paul R.
Mullins , the first cookbook mentioning doughnuts was an English volume which included doughnuts in an appendix of American recipes. He also traces its origins to the oliekoek that arrived in America with the Dutch settlers in the early 18th century.
Hanson Gregory, an American, claimed to have invented the ring-shaped doughnut in aboard a lime-trading ship when he was 16 years old. Gregory was dissatisfied with the greasiness of doughnuts twisted into various shapes and with the raw center of regular doughnuts.
Another theory on their origin came to light in , when a recipe for "dow nuts" was found in a book of recipes and domestic tips written around by the wife of Baron Thomas Dimsdale ,  the recipe being given to the dowager Baroness by an acquaintance who transcribed for her the cooking instructions for a "dow nut".
The earliest known recorded usage of the term dates to an short story  describing a spread of "fire-cakes and dough-nuts". The word nut is here used in the earlier sense of "small rounded cake or cookie".
Edge Donuts, an American passion the alternative spelling "donut" was invented when the New York—based Display Doughnut Machine Corporation abbreviated the word to make it more pronounceable by the foreigners they hoped would buy their automated doughnut making equipment.
In four articles beginning October 9, two mention the donut spelling. Because of the difficulties of providing freshly baked goods from huts established in abandoned buildings near the front lines, the two Salvation Army volunteers Ensign Margaret Sheldon and Adjutant Helen Purviance came up with the idea of providing doughnuts.
These are reported to have been an "instant hit", and "soon many soldiers were visiting The Salvation Army huts".
Margaret Sheldon wrote of one busy day: In the US, especially in Southern California , fresh doughnuts sold by the dozen at local doughnut shops are typically packaged in generic pink boxes.
This phenomenon can be attributed to Ted Ngoy and Ning Yen, refugees of the Cambodian genocide who transformed the local doughnut shop industry. Initially desiring boxes of a lucky red color rather than the standard white, Ngoy and Yen settled on a cheaper, leftover pink stock.
Owing to the success of their business, the color soon became a recognizable standard. Due to the locality of Hollywood , the pink boxes frequently appeared as film and television props and were thus transmitted into popular culture.
Yeast doughnuts and cake doughnuts contain most of the same ingredients, however, their structural differences arise from the type of flour and leavening agent used.
In cake doughnuts, cake flour is used, and the resulting doughnut is denser because cake flour has a relatively low gluten content of about 7 to 8 percent.
Specifically, "Yeast cells are thoroughly distributed throughout the dough and begin to feed on the sugar that is present In cake doughnuts, the most common leavening agent is baking powder.
Baking powder is essentially "baking soda with acid added. This neutralizes the base and produces more CO 2 according to the following equation: The physical structure of the doughnut is created by the combination of flour, leavening agent, sugar, eggs, salt, water, shortening, milk solids, and additional components.
The most important ingredients for creating the dough network are the flour and eggs. The main protein in flour is gluten, which is overall responsible for creating elastic dough because this protein acts as "coiled springs.
Specifically, "the backbone of the gluten network likely consists of the largest glutenin molecules, or subunits, aligned and tightly linked to one another.
These tightly linked glutenin subunits associate more loosely, along with gliadin, into larger gluten aggregates. In mixing, the gluten is developed when the force of the mixer draws the gluten from the wheat endosperm, allowing the gluten matrix to trap the gas cells.
Eggs function as emulsifiers , foaming agents, and tenderizers in the dough. The egg white proteins, mainly ovalbumin, "function as structure formers.
Egg solids, chiefly the egg white solids combined with the moisture in the egg, are considered structure-forming materials that help significantly to produce proper volume, grain, and texture.
Emulsifying agents are essential to doughnut formation because they prevent the fat molecules from separating from the water molecules in the dough.
The main emulsifier in egg yolk is called lecithin, which is a phospholipid. It is this ability to attract both lipids and water that allow phospholipids such as lecithin to act as emulsifiers.
When heat is applied to the dough, the egg proteins will begin to unfold, or denature, and then form new bonds with one another, thus creating a gel-like network that can hold water and gas.
Shortening is responsible for providing tenderness and aerating the dough. The sugar used in baking is essentially sucrose, and besides imparting sweetness in the doughnut, sugar also functions in the color and tenderness of the final product.
Sucrose is a simple carbohydrate whose structure is made up of a glucose molecule bound to a fructose molecule.
These solids are obtained by removing most of the water from skim milk with heat, and this heat additionally denatures the whey proteins and increases the absorption properties of the remaining proteins.
The major whey protein in the nonfat milk solids is known as beta-lactoglobulin, and a crucial feature of its structure is that there exists a single sulfhydryl group that is protected by the alpha helix, and when heating of the milk solids occurs, these groups participate in disulfide exchanges with other molecules.
This interchange prevents the renaturation of the whey proteins. For example, sugar and salt crystals must be dissolved in order for them to act in the dough, whereas larger molecules, such as the starches or proteins, must be hydrated in order for them to absorb moisture.
Pure water consists of two parts hydrogen and one part oxygen, but water used in baking often is not pure. Doughnuts are unhealthy,  some less so than others.
This property measures the ability of the dough to flow. It can be represented by the power law equation: Dough is usually described as a viscoelastic material, meaning that its rheology depends on both the viscosity and the elasticity.
The viscosity coefficient and the flow index are unique to the type of dough being analyzed, while the tangentic stress and the shear rate are measurements obtained depending on the type force being applied to the dough.
In South Africa , an Afrikaans variation known as the koeksister is popular. Another variation, similar in name, is the Cape Malay koesister being soaked in a spiced syrup and coated in coconut.
It has a texture similar to more traditional doughnuts as opposed to the Afrikaans variety. It is served with mince, syrup, honey or jam.
In Tunisia , traditional pastries similar to doughnuts are yo-yos. They come in different versions both as balls and in shape of doughnuts. They are deep-fried and covered in a honey syrup or a kind of frosting.
Sesame seeds are also used for flavor and decoration along with orange juice and vanilla. In Morocco , Sfenj is a similar pastry eaten sprinkled with sugar or soaked in honey.
A few sweet, doughnut-style pastries are regional in nature. Chinese restaurants in the United States sometimes serve small fried pastries similar to doughnut holes with condensed milk as a sauce.
These pastries are not sweet and are often served with congee , a traditional rice porridge. In India , an old-fashioned sweet called gulgula is made of sweetened, deep-fried flour balls.
A leavening agent may or may not be used. In India , there are a couple of unrelated doughnut-shaped food items. A savory, fried, ring-shaped snack called a vada is often referred to as the Indian doughnut.
The vada is made from dal , lentil or potato flours rather than wheat flour. In South India, a vada is eaten with sambar and a coconut chutney. Sweet pastries similar to old-fashioned doughnuts called badushahi and jalebi are also popular.
Balushahi , also called badushah , is made from flour, deep fried in clarified butter, and dipped in sugar syrup. Unlike a doughnut, balushahi is dense.
A balushahi is ring-shaped, but the well in the center does not go all the way through to form a hole typical of a doughnut.
Jalebi , which is typically pretzel-shaped, is made by deep frying batter in oil and soaking it in sugar syrup. Along with these Indian variants, typical varieties of doughnuts are also available from U.
The Persian zoolbia and bamiyeh are fritters of various shapes and sizes coated in a sugar syrup. Traditional sufganiyot are filled with red jelly and topped with icing sugar.
However, many other varieties exist, with some being filled with dulce de leche particularly common after the South American aliyah early in the 21st century.
Mister Donut is one of the most popular doughnut chains in Japan. Native to Okinawa is a spheroid pastry similar to doughnuts called sata andagi.
Kuih keria is a hole doughnut made from boiled sweet potato that is mashed. The sweet potato mash is shaped into rings and fried. The hot doughnut is then rolled in granulated sugar.
The result is a doughnut with a sugar-crusted skin. Sel roti is a Nepali homemade, ring-shaped, rice doughnut prepared during Tihar , the widely celebrated Hindu festival in Nepal.
A semiliquid dough is usually prepared by adding milk, water, sugar, butter, cardamom, and mashed banana to rice flour, which is often left to ferment for up to 24 hours.
A sel roti is traditionally fried in ghee. Doughnuts are available at most bakeries across Pakistan. The Navaz Sharif variety, available mainly in the city of Karachi , is covered in chocolate and filled with cream, similar to a Boston cream.
Native doughnut recipes include the shakoy , kumukunsi , and binangkal. Shakoy or siyakoy from the Visayas islands also known as lubid-lubid in the northern Philippines uses a length of dough twisted into a distinctive rope-like shape before being fried.
The preparation is almost exactly the same as doughnuts, though there are variants made from glutinous rice flour.
The texture can range from soft and fluffy, to sticky and chewy, to hard and crunchy. They are sprinkled with white sugar, but can also be topped with sesame seeds or caramelized sugar.
It is made with rice flour , duck eggs, and sugar that is molded into rope-like strands and then fried in a loose spiral. It has the taste and consistency of a creamy pancake.
Often sold from food stalls in markets or by the side of the road, these doughnuts are small, sometimes X-shaped, and sold by the bag full.
In Austria , doughnut equivalents are called Krapfen. They are especially popular during Carneval season Fasching , and do not have the typical ring shape, but instead are solid and usually filled with apricot jam traditional or vanilla cream Vanillekrapfen.
In Belgium , the smoutebollen in Dutch, or croustillons in French, are similar to the Dutch kind of oliebollen , but they usually do not contain any fruit, except for apple chunks sometimes.
They are typical carnival and fair snacks and are coated with powdered sugar. Doughnuts similar to the Berliner are prepared in the northern Balkans, particularly in Bosnia and Herzegovina , Croatia , Macedonia and Serbia pokladnice or krofne.
They are also called krofna , krafna or krafne , a name derived from the Austrian Krapfen for this pastry. In Croatia, they are especially popular during Carneval season and do not have the typical ring shape, but instead are solid.
Traditionally, they are filled with jam apricot or plum. However, they can be filled with vanilla or chocolate cream.
The shape is similar to doughnuts in Germany or Poland. They are called Kobliha Koblihy in plural. They may be filed with nougat or with vanilla custard.
There are now many fillings; cut in half [ clarification needed ] or non-filled knots with sugar and cinnamon on top. In Denmark , U. The Berliner , however, is also available in bakeries.
It is sold cold and sometimes filled with jam like U. A ring doughnut is also known as donitsi. A savory form of doughnut is the meat doughnut in Finnish lihapiirakka , or literally meat pie.
Made from a doughnut mixture and deep fried, the end product is more akin to a savory doughnut than any pie known in the English-speaking world.
The French beignet , literally "bump",  is the French and New Orleans equivalent of a doughnut: In parts of Germany , the doughnut equivalents are called Berliner sg.
In middle Germany, doughnuts are called Kreppel or Pfannkuchen. A Berliner does not have the typical ring shape of a doughnut, but instead is solid and usually filled with jam, while a ring-shaped variant called Kameruner is common in Berlin and eastern Germany.
It is often served with sprinkled cinnamon and grated walnuts or sesame seeds. The most commonly used ingredients are flour , yeast , butter , egg yolk , rum , salt , milk and oil for frying.
The dough is allowed to rise for approximately 30 minutes, resulting in an extremely light pastry. It is supposed [ by whom?
In Iceland kleinuhringur pl. The Berliner and other types of doughnuts can only be found on one day of the year, a holiday called Bolludagur , i.
Italian doughnuts include ciambelle , krapfen , zippuli and zeppole from Calabria , maritozzi and bomboloni from Tuscany , and frittelle from Veneto.
In Lithuania , a kind of doughnut called spurgos is widely known. In the Netherlands , oliebollen , referred to in cookbooks as "Dutch doughnuts", are a type of fritter, with or without raisins or currants , and usually sprinkled with powdered sugar.
Variations of the recipe contain slices of apple or other fruits. They are traditionally eaten as part of New Year celebrations.
In Norway, smultring is the prevailing type of doughnut traditionally sold in bakeries, shops, and stalls. The Berliner is more common than U.
In Poland and parts of the U. They are stuffed with chocolate, jam, cheese and other combinations and may be dusted with icing sugar. In Russia and the other Post-Soviet countries , ponchiki Russian: Petersburg are a very popular sweet doughnut, with many fast and simple recipes available in Russian cookbooks for making them at home as a breakfast or coffee pastry.
In Slovenia , a jam-filled doughnut known as krofi , is very popular. It is the typical sweet during Carnival time, but is to be found in most bakeries during the whole year.
The most famous krofi come from the village of Trojane in central Slovenia, and are originally filled with apricot jam filling. In Spain , there are two different types of doughnuts.
The first one, simply called donuts , or more traditionally berlinesas , is a U. Doughs vary widely depending on ingredients, the kind of product being produced, the type of leavening agent particularly whether the dough is based on yeast or not , how the dough is mixed whether quickly mixed or kneaded and left to rise , and cooking or baking technique.
There is no formal definition of what makes dough, though most doughs have viscoelastic properties. Leavened or fermented doughs generally made from grain cereals or legumes that are ground to produce flour , mixed with water and yeast are used all over the world to make various breads.
Salt , oils or fats , sugars or honey and sometimes milk or eggs are also common ingredients in bread dough.
Commercial bread doughs may also include dough conditioners , a class of ingredients that aid in dough consistency and final product.
Flatbreads such as pita , lafa , lavash , matzah or matzo , naan , roti , sangak , tortilla , and yufka are eaten around the world and are also made from dough.
Some flatbreads, such as naan, use leavening agents; others, such as matzo, do not. Crackers are also made from dough, and some such as saltine crackers  are leavened.
Pasta and noodles are generally based on unleavened doughs that are worked until they are dry and smooth, and then shaped into their final form.
The finished pasta may be cooked immediately or dried before cooking. Doughs with higher fat content have a lesser water content, develop less gluten and are therefore generally less elastic than bread doughs; these doughs are often called "short" by bakers.
This category includes many cookie and pie crust doughs, such as shortcrust pastry. In many parts of central India , people use the quick method of making an instant roasted dough ball or baati.
In countries in the Sahel region of Africa, dough balls called aiysh or biya are made from sorghum or millet , and are ground and boiled.
Quick breads use leavening agents other than yeast such as baking powder or baking soda , and include most cookies , cakes , biscuits , and more; these may be based on a batter or a dough.
For yeast-based and sponge such as sourdough breads, a common production technique is the dough is mixed, kneaded, and then left to rise.
Many bread doughs call for a second stage, where the dough is kneaded again, shaped into the final form, and left to rise a final time or proofed before baking.
Pasta is typically made from a dry dough that is kneaded and shaped, either through extrusion , rolling out in a pasta machine, or stretched or shaped by hand as for gnocchi or dumplings.
Pasta may be cooked directly after production so-called " fresh pasta " or dried, which renders it shelf-stable. Doughs for biscuits and many flatbreads which are not leavened with yeast are typically mixed but not kneaded or left to rise; these doughs are shaped and cooked directly after mixing.
While breads and other products made from doughs are often baked , some types of dough-based foods are cooked over direct heat, such as tortillas , which are cooked directly on a griddle.
Fried dough foods are also common in many cultures. Pancakes , waffles , some kinds of bar cookies such as brownies , and many cakes and quick breads including muffins and the like are often made with a semi-liquid batter of flour and liquid that is poured into the final shape, rather than a solid dough.
Unlike bread dough, these batters are not stabilized by the formation of a gluten network. Yeast bread dough after rising proofing , for 40 minutes.
Dough being extruded from a pasta machine. Acetone peroxide is an oxidizing agent used to mature and strengthen flour. This product speeds up the oxidation process which allows companies to produce baked goods faster and more efficiently.
Ammonium persulfate is used in baking, which acts to improve baking quality and color of flour. This additive supplies nitrogen for the yeast which improves consistency, volume and shelf life.
It also serves to control the pH of flour and baked products. Ascorbic acid , otherwise known as vitamin C, is used as an antioxidant in dough.
By controlling the amount of oxygen reacting with the bread products, it acts to promote optimal taste and texture.
It is also used as an ingredient preservative in baked goods, as it increases the shelf life by controlling oxidation.
Azodicarbonamide is used as a bleaching agent in flour and helps the dough rise through its conditioning properties.
Benzoyl peroxide is used as a bleaching agent in white and whole wheat flour within specific quantities.
Calcium iodate is a food additive used to condition dough by reducing the amount of yeast required to raise dough. In Canada, it is found in unstandardized bakery products and bread, at trace quantities.
Calcium peroxide is a food additive that helps to whiten flour due to the bleaching powers of peroxide. Further, it is often applied in oral products such as toothpaste as a whitening agent.
However, its effectiveness is doubted. Calcium stearoyllactylate is a food additive that is found in many food products, such as baked goods, desserts , powdered drink mixes, dehydrated potatoes, and chewing gums.
In Canada, it is commonly used in yeast- leavened recipes as an emulsifier during bread making. In bread, calcium stearoyllactylate helps to improve the mixability of the dough and strengthen it.
Chlorine is a food additive that bleaches flour products. In cake production, the application of chlorinated flour helps to improve the structure-forming capacity.
Chlorinated flour is also used in biscuit production to keep the raw dough firm and easier to handle. It is worth to note that in some European countries such as Germany , Switzerland , and Belgium , chlorine is banned as a washing agent.
Therefore, new alternatives may be required and are being researched currently.